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While this inevitably results in plant drought stress and consequently in production loss, DI maximizes irrigation water productivity, which is the main limiting factor (English, 1990).Experiments in Turkey and India indicated that the irrigation water use for cotton could be reduced to up to 60 percent of the total crop water requirement with limited yield losses.This is a combination of water lost by evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration by the plant, occurring simultaneously.For certain crops, experiments confirm that DI can increase water use efficiency without severe yield reductions.Certain Underutilized and horticultural crops also respond favorably to DI, such as tested at experimental and farmer level for the crop quinoa.(18N-6P-12K) and incorporated into the container medium.For example for winter wheat in Turkey, planned DI increased yields by 65% as compared to winter wheat under rainfed cultivation, and had double the water use efficiency as compared to rainfed and fully irrigated winter wheat.Outside these periods, irrigation is limited or even unnecessary if rainfall provides a minimum supply of water.Representative values of WUE for cereals at field level, expressed with evapotranspiration in the denominator, can vary between 0.10 and 4 kg/m3.Yields could be stabilized at around 1.6 tons per hectare by supplementing irrigation water if rainwater was lacking during the plant establishment and reproductive stages.Except by modeling, distinguishing between the two processes is difficult.The correct application of DI requires thorough understanding of the yield response to water (crop sensitivity to drought stress) and of the economic impact of reductions in harvest.kilograms of grain) in relation to the amount of input needed to produce that output (cubic meters of water).In this way, high water productivity and a better nutrient-water balance was obtained.

In other words, DI aims at stabilizing yields and at obtaining maximum crop water productivity rather than maximum yields (Zhang and Oweis, 1999)." expressed in kg/m³ is an efficiency term, expressing the amount of marketable product (e.g.The water used for crop production is referred to as crop evapotranspiration."Deficit irrigation is an optimization strategy in which irrigation is applied during drought-sensitive growth stages of a crop.Total irrigation application is therefore not proportional to irrigation requirements throughout the crop cycle.Deficit irrigation (DI) is a watering strategy that can be applied by different types of irrigation application methods.

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