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The partially independent social, linguistic, and political evolution of the Alsatians during French rule laid the foundations for a distinct Alsatian sub-national affiliation that endured even after annexation by the Second Reich of Bismarck in 1871.The 'Sun King' Louis XIV initiated full-scale invasions of Lorraine and Alsace, subduing both by 1680.The region was settled by ethnic Germans after the 5th century under the settling Germanic Frankish tribes, who by the 9th century under their king Karl the Great '(Charlemagne) had built a continental empire that stretched from western Poland to Spain.Due to its proximity to France and its highly cosmopolitan nature as a functional political and commercial polity prior to French annexation, Lorraine endured consistent ethnic French and non-German settlement over many centuries.The Alsatian German ethnic group () practiced a highly independent and strongly religious lifestyle that was distinct both from French culture and from other German regional affiliations.The German language was not actively suppressed, nor was the Lutheran religion that was followed by many Alsatian Germans at the same time as French anti-Huguenot (Protestant) edicts were causing rampant persecution, civil war, and bloodshed in the rest of France.Rapidly, Lorraine lost its Germanic character as reflected in the demographic shift from a German-speaking majourity to a French majourity, becoming (as it remains) a highly Francophone and Francophile region.The German name 'Elsaß' found its counterpart in French as 'Alsace.' Gradually, Lorraine drifted into increasing autonomy as the Duchy of Lorraine and came under growing pressure from political hegemons in Western Europe.The border territory of Alsace to the east and closer to Germany, however, retained a strongly distinct Germanic culture, heritage, language, and identity.The regions of Alsace and Lorraine, straddling the shared French and German border, have been a source of political, cultural, and nationalistic dispute between the French and Germans in various forms for nearly 1,000 years.The Alsatians enjoyed incredible cultural, academic, and social autonomy from the rest of France despite that nation's frequent political crises.Alsace to the east remained far more closely linked to Germany, and passed between the political, linguistic, and cultural influences of Baden, Austria, Germany, and Burgundy (all bearing various forms of German culture).It was from this common yoke that the modern nations of France, Germany, and Italy gradually coalesced.


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